How to make concrete without cement?

The article aims to answer the question “How to make concrete without cement?”. It will also discuss how fly-ash concrete can replace the cement in the making of concrete. 

Read on to know more;

How to make concrete without cement?

  • It is feasible to make concrete without cement by using fly ash as an alternative to cement. 
  • Strength, durability, and accessibility are among the many reasons concrete is the most often used building material. Cement, on the other hand, is a frequent and essential component in the production of concrete.
  • Replacements for Cement An alternative to cement: pulverized fuel ash, or “Fly Ash.” Coal-fired power plants produce PFA as a waste product. The use of Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS). 
  • The iron and steel industry produces GGBS as a byproduct. Fumes from silica sand processing. Limestone slurry. Fuels that aren’t based on fossil fuels.
  • Unlike traditional concrete, geopolymer concrete does not need the use of Portland cement as a binding agent. Byproducts of the manufacturing process, such as fly ash, may be used to create geopolymer, an inorganic aluminum-Hydroxide polymer.

What do I need to make concrete without cement?

  • Fly ash concrete
  • Gravel
  • Sand 
  • Aggregate 

Why do I need cement in concrete?

In our daily lives, cement serves an important but sometimes unappreciated role. 

Decorative uses for cement include patios, floors, stairwells, driveways, pool decks, and bookcases, but it is mostly utilized as a binder in concrete, which is a fundamental building material used to build everything from houses to highways to schools to hospitals to dams and ports. 

Concrete is a versatile and long-lasting building material that may be used in a variety of ways. In the construction business, cement is a vital component.

This modern cement was invented just 188 years ago.

In 1824, Joseph Aspdin of England became the first person to receive a patent for making a cementitious material for use in building construction that was radically different from what had previously been used.

  • Upon hardening, the cement paste resembled the natural stone found in Portland, England. ‘ As a result, the cement was given the name Portland. 
  • All other binding elements, such as clay and lime, that had previously dominated construction for hundreds of years, have been supplanted by cement over the past century. 
  • The reason for this is that cement, when compared to lime, is the strongest binding material. Mortar, plaster, grout, paint, and precast parts are just a few of the goods in the building industry that require cement. 
  • Ten to twelve percent of building costs are accounted for by cement in an average construction project. Bridges, for example, require a lot more attention.
  • Concrete can be made in bulk and delivered over great distances in regulated conditions.
  • Lime and clay are weaker binding agents than cement.
  • Mix & match at will with locally accessible materials on the spot.
  • For a reasonable period of time, if stored in a regular atmosphere, it will not decay or react.
  • Sets up quickly and can be used in place of other binding materials in just a few days after being mixed with water.
  • Water adds a lot of head to quick lime, while the heat produced in cement is barely perceptible and far less.
  • It is able to withstand compressive forces. Steel reinforcement is well-bonded where tension and shear stresses occur, and the excess stresses are transferred to steel. 
  • Limestone, hematite, bauxite, clay, and other elements found in the upper crust of the Earth are used to make it.

Can I make concrete without cement?

Yes, you can make concrete without cement.

It is feasible to make concrete without cement by using fly ash as an alternative to cement. It has the same chemical and physical characteristics as cement. As a result, it may totally replace cement in construction projects. 

An aggregate, cement, and water mixture is referred to as “concrete.” Strength, durability, and accessibility are among the many reasons concrete is the most often used building material. 

Cement, on the other hand, is a frequent and essential component in the production of concrete.

As a result of the high quantity of energy required for the manufacture of cement, pollution and global warming are exacerbated. 

Cement manufacture begins with the mining of raw materials, followed by the crushing, mixing, and heating of these components to temperatures above 15,000 degrees Celsius, until the heated ingredients are eventually transformed into cement. 

Every step in the production process of cement demands a significant amount of energy, which in turn adds to an increase in CO2 emissions. 7 percent of greenhouse gas emissions are attributed to the manufacture of cement, which is expected to quadruple by 2014. 

The amount of cement needed to build these new infrastructures is rising along with the demand. As a result, reducing greenhouse gas emissions is impossible in the effort to halt global warming. 

A new, environmentally friendly substance is developed to help solve this worldwide issue and protect our planet.

What is fly ash concrete?

Coal combustion produces fly ash as a byproduct, which is a byproduct of the power generation process. It is a by-product of the electricity industry and is destined for the landfill. 

In addition to lowering cement plant energy consumption and dumping area requirements, fly ash utilization minimizes the environmental effect of cement concrete building as well as thermal power plant operations. 

Concrete’s strength and durability may be improved by substituting Portland cement for up to 25% of the fly ash. The kind of coal used in power plants, as well as the technique used to burn it, affect the fly ash’s properties. 

Concrete may also make use of flyash, which has qualities that make it acceptable for use in cement. 

Concrete made using fly ash in lieu of cement, as well as concrete without cement, has been proven to have superior short- and long-term strength and workability when compared to conventional Portland cement concrete.

How much cement do I need? 

The amount of cement you need depends on the project you are working on. You may use the following online concrete calculators to calculate the amount of cement you need:

By using any of the above mentioned online calculators, you can figure out how much cement and other building materials, such as sand, will be needed. 

You’ll need to know the exact dimensions of your object in order to perform each calculation. A small percentage of wastage is accounted for when making and using cement-based products, and this is rounded up to the nearest 20kg bag. The calculator will do all of this for you.

In this method, you’ll be able to accurately estimate the number of bags of cement needed for your job, whether you’re building a whole wall or just setting some posts.

Planning a project may necessitate the assistance of an expert. A good example of this would be how deep to make your post holes while installing them. 

If you want a simple solution, you’ll have to take into account a wide range of elements, including soil type and anticipated weight on the post. If you are doubtful, please seek the advice of a professional.

Does cement affect the strength of concrete?

It’s hard to think of a single factor that adds to the strength of concrete. However, there are certain commonalities:

·       Types of cement that may be used

·       Cement quantity, quality, and brand

·       Inadvertent use of cement

·       Aggregate cleanliness and grading

·       Percentage of water

·       Admixtures or lack thereof

·       Methods of handling and positioning

·       Temperature

·       Resolving health issues

·       Inconsistencies in delivery

·       Once formed and tested, concrete is considered old.

The strength of the mixture may be affected by the addition of foreign ingredients. In order to achieve desired strength, it is necessary to eliminate the irrelevant aspects and focus on the important ones.

In addition, proper examination ensures that no changes in the strength of concrete occur.

What is the difference between cement and Concrete?

Although the phrases “concrete” and “cement” are sometimes used indiscriminately, cement is actually an element in concrete. 

Concrete is a mixture of materials and a binder known as cement. sand and gravel or crushed stone; the paste is made of water and Portland cement.

It’s estimated that 10% to 15% cement is included in a typical concrete mix. Aggregates become a rock-like mass after cement and water are combined in a process known as “hydration”. Concrete’s strength increases with age since the hardening process lasts for many years.

Portland cement is not really a premium brand, but the general word for the type of cement used in practically all concrete, much as stainless steel is a type of steel and sterling silver is a type of metal. 

To avoid misunderstandings and confusion, the terms “concrete sidewalk” and “concrete mixer” should always be used instead. 

How much ballast and cement do I need?

You need a 1:6 ratio of cement to ballast

Adding ballast in cement in the initial paste to the finished concrete has been found to boost the concrete’s strength, hence a perfect ballast to cement ratio is required. 

The water and cement are typically mixed into a paste before adding the ballast and any other additives needed to alter the concrete’s strength and qualities. Several elements are required to make concrete. Coarse aggregate (sometimes known as “ballast”) is a critical component of the finished product. 

The aggregate particles are held together by this ingredient in the cement. The completed combination, which includes water and other elements, is ready to be poured.

Concrete’s strength changes depending on the ballast used; lightweight ballast results in weaker concrete. The strength of the concrete produced fluctuates when the quantity and uniformity of ballast are changed.

Concrete’s imperial strength is expressed in pounds per square inch (psi) or megapascals (MPa). Strong concrete used in superstructures and bridges may often exceed 10,000 psi, whereas ordinary concrete has a strength of just 2,000 psi (14 MPa) (70 MPa). 

5,000 psi (35 MPa) concrete is used in a wide range of civil and structural engineering applications. The strength of a concrete mixture is usually determined by the purpose for which it is to be used.

Workability and consistent physical and chemical qualities may be achieved using equipment that successfully blends big aggregate into a homogeneous mixture.

Conclusion

It is possible to make concrete without cement by using fly ash as an alternative to cement. It has the same chemical and physical characteristics as cement. As a result, it may totally replace cement in construction projects. 

An aggregate, cement, and water mixture is referred to as “concrete.” Strength, durability, and accessibility are among the many reasons concrete is the most often used building material. Cement, on the other hand, is a frequent and essential component in the production of concrete.

Frequently asked questions (FAQS): How to make concrete without cement?

How to make concrete without cement?

It is feasible to make concrete without cement by using fly ash as an alternative to cement. 

Strength, durability, and accessibility are among the many reasons concrete is the most often used building material. Cement, on the other hand, is a frequent and essential component in the production of concrete.

How much cement do I need? 

The amount of cement you need depends on the project you are working on.

How much cement does 1 ton of ballast require?

When utilizing a 1:6 mix of Portland cement and ballast, six bags of 25kg (total 150kg) of cement are needed for each ton; for a 1:5 combination of glue and ballast, seven bags of cement are required, and for a 1:4 mix of the two, nine bags of cement are needed.

Bibliography

Lam, H. F., Hu, Q., & Wong, M. T. (2014). The Bayesian methodology for the detection of railway ballast damage under a concrete sleeper. Engineering Structures, 81, 289-301.

Hertz, K. D. (2005). Concrete strength for fire safety design. Magazine of concrete research, 57(8), 445-453.

Cervera, M., Faria, R., Oliver, J., & Prato, T. (2002). Numerical modeling of concrete curing, regarding hydration and temperature phenomena. Computers & structures, 80(18-19), 1511-1521.

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